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双语聚焦丨【经济学人精读】政场黑暗面:如何败坏女政客的名声

责任编辑:ada.kang来源:互联网时间:2019-11-28 13:55:08点击:

今天给大家推荐一篇来自《经济学人》的双语文章,女政客的名声是如何被破坏的,利用造假传播女性政客的虚假性爱录像,数字技术使这种性诽谤传播得更快、更隐秘。尤其是一种被称为“换脸”的技术(使用AI处理影像)不仅大大降低了伪造视频的成本与门槛,还达到了以假乱真的目的。

关键词: GRE考试GRE备考GRE阅读

  Leaders社论

  Fake nudes虚假裸体

  Sex, lies and politics性、谎言和政治

  As deepfake technology spreads, expect more bogus sex tapes of female politicians随着深度造假技术的传播,可以预料会有更多女性政客的虚假性爱录像

  1. Adulterer, pervert, traitor, murderer. In France in 1793, no woman was more relentlessly slandered than Marie Antoinette. Political pamphlets spread baseless rumors of her depravity. Some drawings showed her with multiple lovers, male and female. Others portrayed her as aharpy, a notoriously disagreeable mythical beast that was half bird-of-prey, half woman. Suchmudslinging served a political purpose. The revolutionaries who had overthrown the monarchy wanted to tarnish the former queen’s reputation before they cut off her head.

  在1793年的法国,没有哪个女人受到的谩骂、指责与诽谤堪比玛丽亚·安东尼特王后:街头巷尾的政治宣传册都在散布她私生活糜烂的谣言;还有不少画作都在暗讽她与多名男女有染。甚至有人把她描绘成一个鹰身女妖——臭名昭著、半人半兽的神话猛禽。如此诽谤最终也达到了其政治目的:推翻君主制的革命者们想在法国大革命前夕败坏她的名声。

  2. She was a victim of something ancient and nasty that is becoming worryingly common: sexualized disinformation to undercut women in public life. People have always invented rumors about such women. But things have changed. Digital technology makes it easy todisseminate libel widely and anonymously. “Deepfake” techniques (manipulating images and video using artificial intelligence) make it cheap and simple to create convincing visual evidence that people have done or said things which they have not. And powerful actors, including governments and ruling parties, have gleefully exploited these new opportunities. A report by researchers at Oxford this year found well-organized disinformation campaigns in 70 countries, up from 48 in 2018 and 28 in 2017.

  她是某种恶臭手段的受害者,而这种东西当下正变得愈发普遍,令人担忧:利用被性别化的虚假信息,来削弱女性在公共事务中的地位。人们总是在捏造针对她们的不切实际的谣言。现在的形势正变得令人不安:数字技术使这种性诽谤传播得更快、更隐秘。尤其是一种被称为“换脸”的技术(使用AI处理影像)不仅大大降低了伪造视频的成本与门槛,还达到了以假乱真的目的。包括政府机构与在朝党在内的权力者们则弹冠相庆。根据一份牛津大学研究人员今年发布的报告发现,目前世界上有至少70个国家有序组织过这种针对性的诽谤活动,该数据高于前两年水平。

  3. Consider the case of Rana Ayyub, an Indian journalist who tirelessly reports on corruption, and who wrote a book about the massacre of Muslims in the state of Gujarat when Narendra Modi, now India’s prime minister, was in charge there. For years, critics muttered that she wasunpatriotic (because she is a Muslim who criticizes the ruling party) and a prostitute (because she is a woman). In April 2018 the abuse intensified. A deepfake sex video, which grafted her face over that of another woman, was published and went viral. Digital mobs threatened to rape or kill her. She was “doxxed”: someone published her home address and phone number online. It is hard to prove who was behind this campaign of intimidation, but its purpose is obvious: to silence her, and any other woman thinking of criticizing the mighty.

  以印度记者拉娜•阿尤布为例,她夜以继日地跟踪报道、揭秘官僚内部的腐败,为此还撰写了一本关于发生在如今的印度总理莫迪曾领导过的邦辖区内的穆斯林大屠杀的书。多年来,批评者一直抱怨她不爱国(因为她是批评政府的穆斯林),还说她是风尘女子(因为她是女人)。2018年4月,辱骂风波持续发酵:一段利用基于换脸技术制作的不雅视频将她的脸换到另一名女性的脸上,并在网上疯传。键盘侠扬言要侵害她。随后她被“人肉”了:她的家庭住址和电话号在网络被公之于众。虽说很难断定这场恐吓运动的幕后黑手是谁,但其目的显而易见:让她和其他效仿她的女性乖乖闭嘴。

  4. Similar tactics are used to deter women from running for public office. In the run-up to elections in Iraq last year, two female candidates were humiliated with explicit videos, which they say were faked. One pulled out of the race. The types of image used to degrade women vary from place to place. In Myanmar, where antipathy towards Muslims is widespread, detractors of Aung San Suu Kyi, the country’s de facto leader, circulated a photo manipulated to show her wearing a hijab. By contrast in Iran, an Islamist theocracy, a woman was disqualified from taking the seat she had won when a photo, which she claims is doctored, leaked showing her without one.

  同样的策略也被运用到阻止女性竞选公职的过程中。去年伊拉克大选的准备阶段,两名女性候选人被曝出“不堪入目”的露骨视频,尽管她们坚称这些视频是伪造的。最终的结果是其中一人退出竞选。而针对女性的谗言因地而异。譬如在对穆斯林普遍反感的缅甸,领导人昂山素季的诋毁者们广泛传播传播了一张伪造的照片:她戴着穆斯林头巾。与此相反的是,在伊斯兰国家伊朗,一名妇女被剥夺了她所赢得的席位,原因仅仅是一张她没遵循宗教礼俗佩戴头巾的假照片。

  5. High-tech sexual slander has not replaced the old-fashioned sort, which remains rife wherever politicians and their propagandists can get away with it. In Russia, femaledissidents are dubbed sexual deviants in pro-Kremlin media. In the Philippines, President Rodrigo Duterte has joked about showing a pornographic video of a female opponent, which she says is a fake, to the pope.

  信息时代的新型诽谤并未因此取代传统诽谤,在任何地方,只要政客和他们的宣传者阴谋能够得逞,这种诽谤就会盛行。在俄罗斯,持不同政见者被亲政府媒体称作是性变态;在菲律宾,总统罗德里戈·杜特尔特开玩笑说要向教皇展示一名女性对手的不雅视频,尽管她宣称这是假的。

  6. Stamping out the problem altogether will be impossible. Anyone can make a deepfake sex video, or hire someone to do it, for a pittance, and then distribute it anonymously. Politicians will inevitably be targets. Laws against libel or invasion of privacy may deter some abuses, but they are not much use when the perpetrator is unknown. Reputable tech firms will no doubt try to remove the most egregious content, but there will always be other platforms, some of them hosted by regimes that actively sow disinformation in the West.

  目前来说要根除这种行为近乎无解。任何一位有心人都可以制作此类不雅视频,或者花钱雇人制作然后匿名发布。而政客们首当其冲。反诽谤或侵犯隐私的法律虽然可以阻止一些侵权行为,但如果无法抓到造谣者,这些法律就形同虚设。科技大头们会清理这些垃圾信息,但总有一些所谓“政党传话筒”的平台,在乐此不疲地继续孳生邪恶。

  7. So the best defense against sexual lies is skepticism. People should assume that videos showing female politicians naked or having sex are probably bogus. Journalists should try harder to expose the peddlers of fake footage, rather than mindlessly linking to it. Someday, one hopes, voters may even decide that it is none of their business what public figures look like under their clothes, or which consenting adults they sleep with.

  所以最好的防御手段就是时刻保持怀疑态度。人人都要假定:女性政客的不雅视频可能是假的。记者们应该勇于揭露曝光邪恶,而不是盲目跟风逐流。毕竟公众人物的私生活,和选民们没有一丁点关系。

  精读解析

  篇章结构P1—P2:用玛丽亚·安东尼特的例子引入:性别化的虚假信息,以削弱女性在公共生活中的地位。P3:印度记者拉娜•阿尤布深受性别化的虚假信息的危害,有人利用deepfake技术传播关于她的虚假信息。P4—P5:有人利用性诽谤来阻止女性竞选公职。P6—P7:解决对女性的性诽谤的问题是不可能的,对性谎言的最好防御办法就是怀疑。

  重点单词

  depravity /dɪ'prævɪtɪ/ n. 堕落,腐败;恶行,堕落腐化的行为【例句】It is a mark of depravity to make a mock of good advice and kind rebuke.嘲笑别人的忠告和善意指责是堕落的标志。

  relentless /rɪ'lentlɪs/ adj. 残酷的, 不留情的, 无怜悯心的【例句】He was relentless in asking for compensation.他冷酷无情地要求赔偿。

  slander /'slɑːndə/ n. 诽谤, 诋毁vt. 造谣中伤【例句】He slandered me in front of the headmaster.他在校长面前诽谤我。

  pamphlet /ˈpæmflit/ n. 小册子【例句】Pamphlets were distributed among the audience.把小册子分发给听众。

  harpy /'hɑːpɪ/ n. 残酷贪婪的人,鹰身女妖【例句】One of the most notable species is the harpy eagle.其中最引人注目的是哈比鹰。

  disagreeable /dɪsə'griːəb(ə)l/ adj. 不合意的;令人不快的;讨厌的;(人)不友善的;难相处的;暴躁的【例句】She remembered how disagreeable Mary had been when she first arrived.她想起玛丽刚来这儿时是多么的不讨人喜欢。

  mudslinging /'mʌdslɪŋɪŋ/ n. 揭发隐私【例句】After I call the reporter a no-good mudslinger, I'll give him the facts, the ones he neglected to include in this story.首先我会称该记者是个无良诽谤者,然后再摆事实,那些他在报道中避而不谈的事实。

  tarnish /'tɑːnɪʃ/ vt. & vi. (通常指金属)(使)失去光泽;(使)变灰暗玷污, 败坏n. 污点, 瑕疵, 无光泽【例句】And his clothes were all tarnished with ashes and soot;他的衣服全都沾满了灰烬和煤烟。

  disseminate /dɪ'semɪneɪt/ vt. 散布, 传播【例句】She helped disseminate information about the new artist.她协助宣传有关这位新艺术家的信息。

  anonymous /ə'nɒnɪməs/ adj. 无名的, 不具名的【例句】It is an anonymous letter.这是一封匿名信。  

  massacre /'mæsəkə/ vt. 残杀;彻底击败n. 大屠杀;惨败【例句】He is collecting evidence to massacre his opponents.他正在收集证据要彻底击败他的对手。

  unpatriotic /ˌʌnpætrɪ'ɒtɪk/ adj. 不爱国的,无爱国心的【例句】The book quotes Bannon describing a Trump Tower meeting between Donald Trump Jr. and a group of Russians as treasonous and unpatriotic.因为这本书引用了班农的描述,称小特朗普和几名俄罗斯人在特朗普大厦的会面为“叛国”和“不爱国”。

  intimidation /in,timi'deiʃən/ n. 恫吓,恐吓;胁迫【例句】Most power struggles are resolved through ritual intimidation.这种力量上的比拼大多时候是一种形式上的角逐。 

  be humiliated with 被…侮辱【例句】Ahlam says the family wants to be comfortable, and she wants her children to live with dignity and not be humiliated. 在那里,Ahlam说,家庭要舒服,她希望她的孩子生活得有尊严和不可辱。

  antipathy /æn'tɪpəθɪ/ n. 反感, 厌恶;引起反感的事物;憎恶的对象【例句】I had heard little good of him and could feel no intense antipathy to his murderers.因为大家对于他素日的行为并没有好气,所以我对于凶手们也没有太大的反感。

  hijab /'haidʒæb/ n. 穆斯林妇女戴的面纱或头巾【例句】Advertisers, technology companies and fashion designers are gaining interest in the hijab.广告商、技术公司和时装设计师对这种头巾越来越感兴趣。

  theocracy /θɪ'ɒkrəsɪ/ n. 神权政治(国家)【例句】ISIS wants to create a theocracy based on its own interpretation of Islam.伊希斯想通过对伊斯兰教的自身理解创建一个神权政体。

   propagandist /ˌprɔpə'gændist/ n. 宣传员adj. 宣传的【例句】Despite what pro-regime propagandists say, few civilians have been killed from the air.不管前政权的宣传人员如何说,空袭导致的平民伤亡数少之又少。

  dissident /'dɪsɪd(ə)nt/ n. 持异议者, 公开大唱反调者;持不同政见者【例句】He begins to plot in various ways with dissident Boyars.他开始通过各种途径和保守派贵族们进行密谋。 egregious /ɪ'griːdʒəs/ adj. 极坏的;异乎寻常的【例句】But pretty much everyone has come to believe that China is the most egregious offender.但几乎每个人都意识到了中国是最为恶劣的袭击国。

  perpetrator /ˌpə:pi'treitə/ n. 做坏事者;犯罪者;加害者;行凶者【例句】Usually the main witness is the same, is the perpetrator.通常情况是,主要目击证人和犯罪人是同一个人。

  for a pittance 一点点【例句】At those low wages, few will apply for the job. Who wants to work for a pittance?很少人会去申请那个低薪的工作,谁想为微薄的薪水工作?

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