Sex, lies and politics性、谎言和政治
As deepfake technology spreads, expect more bogus sex tapes of female politicians随着深度造假技术的传播，可以预料会有更多女性政客的虚假性爱录像
1. Adulterer, pervert, traitor, murderer. In France in 1793, no woman was more relentlessly slandered than Marie Antoinette. Political pamphlets spread baseless rumors of her depravity. Some drawings showed her with multiple lovers, male and female. Others portrayed her as aharpy, a notoriously disagreeable mythical beast that was half bird-of-prey, half woman. Suchmudslinging served a political purpose. The revolutionaries who had overthrown the monarchy wanted to tarnish the former queen’s reputation before they cut off her head.
2. She was a victim of something ancient and nasty that is becoming worryingly common: sexualized disinformation to undercut women in public life. People have always invented rumors about such women. But things have changed. Digital technology makes it easy todisseminate libel widely and anonymously. “Deepfake” techniques (manipulating images and video using artificial intelligence) make it cheap and simple to create convincing visual evidence that people have done or said things which they have not. And powerful actors, including governments and ruling parties, have gleefully exploited these new opportunities. A report by researchers at Oxford this year found well-organized disinformation campaigns in 70 countries, up from 48 in 2018 and 28 in 2017.
3. Consider the case of Rana Ayyub, an Indian journalist who tirelessly reports on corruption, and who wrote a book about the massacre of Muslims in the state of Gujarat when Narendra Modi, now India’s prime minister, was in charge there. For years, critics muttered that she wasunpatriotic (because she is a Muslim who criticizes the ruling party) and a prostitute (because she is a woman). In April 2018 the abuse intensified. A deepfake sex video, which grafted her face over that of another woman, was published and went viral. Digital mobs threatened to rape or kill her. She was “doxxed”: someone published her home address and phone number online. It is hard to prove who was behind this campaign of intimidation, but its purpose is obvious: to silence her, and any other woman thinking of criticizing the mighty.
4. Similar tactics are used to deter women from running for public office. In the run-up to elections in Iraq last year, two female candidates were humiliated with explicit videos, which they say were faked. One pulled out of the race. The types of image used to degrade women vary from place to place. In Myanmar, where antipathy towards Muslims is widespread, detractors of Aung San Suu Kyi, the country’s de facto leader, circulated a photo manipulated to show her wearing a hijab. By contrast in Iran, an Islamist theocracy, a woman was disqualified from taking the seat she had won when a photo, which she claims is doctored, leaked showing her without one.
5. High-tech sexual slander has not replaced the old-fashioned sort, which remains rife wherever politicians and their propagandists can get away with it. In Russia, femaledissidents are dubbed sexual deviants in pro-Kremlin media. In the Philippines, President Rodrigo Duterte has joked about showing a pornographic video of a female opponent, which she says is a fake, to the pope.
6. Stamping out the problem altogether will be impossible. Anyone can make a deepfake sex video, or hire someone to do it, for a pittance, and then distribute it anonymously. Politicians will inevitably be targets. Laws against libel or invasion of privacy may deter some abuses, but they are not much use when the perpetrator is unknown. Reputable tech firms will no doubt try to remove the most egregious content, but there will always be other platforms, some of them hosted by regimes that actively sow disinformation in the West.
7. So the best defense against sexual lies is skepticism. People should assume that videos showing female politicians naked or having sex are probably bogus. Journalists should try harder to expose the peddlers of fake footage, rather than mindlessly linking to it. Someday, one hopes, voters may even decide that it is none of their business what public figures look like under their clothes, or which consenting adults they sleep with.
depravity /dɪ'prævɪtɪ/ n. 堕落,腐败;恶行,堕落腐化的行为【例句】It is a mark of depravity to make a mock of good advice and kind rebuke.嘲笑别人的忠告和善意指责是堕落的标志。
relentless /rɪ'lentlɪs/ adj. 残酷的, 不留情的, 无怜悯心的【例句】He was relentless in asking for compensation.他冷酷无情地要求赔偿。
slander /'slɑːndə/ n. 诽谤, 诋毁vt. 造谣中伤【例句】He slandered me in front of the headmaster.他在校长面前诽谤我。
pamphlet /ˈpæmflit/ n. 小册子【例句】Pamphlets were distributed among the audience.把小册子分发给听众。
harpy /'hɑːpɪ/ n. 残酷贪婪的人,鹰身女妖【例句】One of the most notable species is the harpy eagle.其中最引人注目的是哈比鹰。
disagreeable /dɪsə'griːəb(ə)l/ adj. 不合意的;令人不快的;讨厌的;(人)不友善的;难相处的;暴躁的【例句】She remembered how disagreeable Mary had been when she first arrived.她想起玛丽刚来这儿时是多么的不讨人喜欢。
mudslinging /'mʌdslɪŋɪŋ/ n. 揭发隐私【例句】After I call the reporter a no-good mudslinger, I'll give him the facts, the ones he neglected to include in this story.首先我会称该记者是个无良诽谤者，然后再摆事实，那些他在报道中避而不谈的事实。
tarnish /'tɑːnɪʃ/ vt. & vi. (通常指金属)(使)失去光泽;(使)变灰暗玷污, 败坏n. 污点, 瑕疵, 无光泽【例句】And his clothes were all tarnished with ashes and soot;他的衣服全都沾满了灰烬和煤烟。
disseminate /dɪ'semɪneɪt/ vt. 散布, 传播【例句】She helped disseminate information about the new artist.她协助宣传有关这位新艺术家的信息。
anonymous /ə'nɒnɪməs/ adj. 无名的, 不具名的【例句】It is an anonymous letter.这是一封匿名信。
massacre /'mæsəkə/ vt. 残杀;彻底击败n. 大屠杀;惨败【例句】He is collecting evidence to massacre his opponents.他正在收集证据要彻底击败他的对手。
unpatriotic /ˌʌnpætrɪ'ɒtɪk/ adj. 不爱国的,无爱国心的【例句】The book quotes Bannon describing a Trump Tower meeting between Donald Trump Jr. and a group of Russians as treasonous and unpatriotic.因为这本书引用了班农的描述，称小特朗普和几名俄罗斯人在特朗普大厦的会面为“叛国”和“不爱国”。
intimidation /in,timi'deiʃən/ n. 恫吓,恐吓;胁迫【例句】Most power struggles are resolved through ritual intimidation.这种力量上的比拼大多时候是一种形式上的角逐。
be humiliated with 被…侮辱【例句】Ahlam says the family wants to be comfortable, and she wants her children to live with dignity and not be humiliated. 在那里，Ahlam说，家庭要舒服，她希望她的孩子生活得有尊严和不可辱。
antipathy /æn'tɪpəθɪ/ n. 反感, 厌恶;引起反感的事物;憎恶的对象【例句】I had heard little good of him and could feel no intense antipathy to his murderers.因为大家对于他素日的行为并没有好气，所以我对于凶手们也没有太大的反感。
hijab /'haidʒæb/ n. 穆斯林妇女戴的面纱或头巾【例句】Advertisers, technology companies and fashion designers are gaining interest in the hijab.广告商、技术公司和时装设计师对这种头巾越来越感兴趣。
theocracy /θɪ'ɒkrəsɪ/ n. 神权政治(国家)【例句】ISIS wants to create a theocracy based on its own interpretation of Islam.伊希斯想通过对伊斯兰教的自身理解创建一个神权政体。
propagandist /ˌprɔpə'gændist/ n. 宣传员adj. 宣传的【例句】Despite what pro-regime propagandists say, few civilians have been killed from the air.不管前政权的宣传人员如何说，空袭导致的平民伤亡数少之又少。
dissident /'dɪsɪd(ə)nt/ n. 持异议者, 公开大唱反调者;持不同政见者【例句】He begins to plot in various ways with dissident Boyars.他开始通过各种途径和保守派贵族们进行密谋。 egregious /ɪ'griːdʒəs/ adj. 极坏的;异乎寻常的【例句】But pretty much everyone has come to believe that China is the most egregious offender.但几乎每个人都意识到了中国是最为恶劣的袭击国。
perpetrator /ˌpə:pi'treitə/ n. 做坏事者;犯罪者;加害者;行凶者【例句】Usually the main witness is the same, is the perpetrator.通常情况是，主要目击证人和犯罪人是同一个人。
for a pittance 一点点【例句】At those low wages, few will apply for the job. Who wants to work for a pittance?很少人会去申请那个低薪的工作，谁想为微薄的薪水工作?